> AP Human; Shared Flashcard Set. Cultural ecologyis the study of how the natural environment can influence a culture group. Literature is thus, on the one hand, a sensorium for what goes wrong in a society, for the biophobic, life-paralyzing implications of one-sided forms of consciousness and civilizational uniformity, and it is, on the other hand, a medium of constant cultural self-renewal, in which the neglected biophilic energies can find a symbolic space of expression and of (re-)integration into the larger ecology of cultural discourses. For some people in other cultures it seems quirky and strange, but for the Indian population the cow is sacred. They were particularly concerned with the question of agricultural intensification, refining the competing models of Thomas Malthus and Boserup. This was resolved by officially adopting conceptual frameworks as an approach to facilitate the organisation of research and teaching that cuts cross old subject divisions. Cultural ecology is in fact a conceptual arena that has, over the past six decades allowed sociologists, physicists, zoologists and geographers to enter common intellectual ground from the sidelines of their specialist subjects. Simmons' book was one of many interdisciplinary culture/environment publications of the 1970s and 1980s, which triggered a crisis in geography with regards its subject matter, academic sub-divisions, and boundaries. AP Geography Outline . Both Russel's and Lauwerys' books were about cultural ecology, although not titled as such. Geographic viewpoint- a response to determinism- that holds that human descision making, not the environment, is the critical factor in cultural development. Zapf 2008, 2016), as well as in a recent monograph (Zapf 2016). In his Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution (1955), cultural ecology represents the "ways in which culture change is induced by adaptation to the environment." 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